Crossmark Policy Statement

Crossmark is a multi-publisher initiative from Crossref to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content. By applying the Crossmark logo, SUNDERMANN: Jurnal Ilmiah Teologi, Pendidikan, Sains, Humaniora dan Kebudayaan is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur.
Clicking on the Crossmark logo will tell you the document's current status and may also give you additional publication record information about the document.

Article Retraction & Withdrawal

A general principle of scholarly communication is that the Editor of a journal is solely and independently responsible for deciding which articles submitted shall be published. In making this decision, the Editor is guided by journal policies and constrained by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. This principle's outcome is the scholarly archive's importance as a permanent, historical record of the transactions of scholarship: articles that have been published shall remain extantexact, and unaltered as much as possible. However, occasionally circumstances may arise where an article is published that must later be retracted or even removed. Such actions must not be taken lightly and can only occur under exceptional circumstances.

Sundermann Journal recognizes the importance of the scholarly record's integrity and completeness to researchers and the wider academic community. Honest errors are a part of science and publishing and require publication of notification or correction when detected. We adhere to the highest standards to maintain the trust in and correctness of our electronic archive. In all cases, our official archives will retain all article versions, including retracted or otherwise removed articles. Our publications operate according to the below policies for making corrections to scholarly published material.

Article Retraction

Journal Editors should consider retracting a publication if:

  • It contains infringements of professional, ethical codes, such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, etc.
  • It contains significant errors (e.g., miscalculations or experimental errors). The main conclusion is no longer valid or seriously undermined due to new evidence that the Authors were not aware of at the time of publication.

Journal Editors shall determine based on investigation whether a retraction is required and, in such cases, shall act following COPE’s Retraction Guidelines. Besides these guidelines, standards for dealing with retractions have been developed by several libraries and scholarly bodies (refer to ICMJE’s recommendations on Corrections, Retractions, Republications, and Version Control or the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s policy on Errata, Retractions, and Other Linked Citations in PubMed) and based on these the following best practice for article retraction has been adopted by Sundermann Journal:

  • A retraction note titled “Retraction: [Article Title],” which is signed by the Authors and/or the Editor, is published in a subsequent issue of the journal and is listed in the table of contents.
  • In the electronic version, a link is added to the original article.
  • The online article is preceded by a screen containing the retraction note; it is to this screen that the link resolves; the reader can then proceed to the article itself.
  • The original article is retained unchanged except for a watermark included on each page of the article PDF indicating that it has been “retracted.”
  • The HTML version of the document is removed.

Note that if Authors retain the copyright for an article, this does not mean they automatically have the right to retract it after publication. The integrity of the published scientific record is of paramount importance, and COPE’s Retraction Guidelines still apply in such cases.

Article Correction

Journal Editors should consider issuing a correction if:

  • A small part of an otherwise reliable publication reports flawed data or proves to be misleading, especially if this is the result of honest error.
  • The Author or Contributor list is incorrect (e.g., a deserving author has been omitted or someone who does not meet authorship criteria has been included).

Corrections to peer-reviewed content fall into one of four categories:

  • Publisher correction (a.k.a. ‘erratum’): to notify readers of a significant error made by publishing/journal staff (usually a production error) that harms the publication record or the article's scientific integrity, or on the reputation of the Authors or the journal.
  • Author correction (a.k.a. ‘corrigendum’): to notify readers of an important error made by the Authors which harms the publication record or the scientific integrity of the article, or on the reputation of the Authors or the journal.
  • Addendum: an addition to the article by its Authors to explain inconsistencies, expand the existing work, or otherwise explain or update the information in the main work.
  • Retraction: see the previous section. Retractions are usually reserved for so seriously flawed publications (for whatever reason) that their findings or conclusions cannot be relied upon. Note that partial retractions are not helpful because they make it difficult for readers to determine the article's status and which parts may be reliable. Similarly, suppose only a small section of an article (e.g., a few sentences in the discussion) is plagiarized. In that case, Editors should consider whether readers (and the plagiarized Author) would be best served by a correction (which could note the fact that text was used without appropriate acknowledgment) rather than retracting the entire article, which may contain original sound data in other parts.

The decision whether a correction should be issued is made by the Editor(s) of a journal, sometimes with advice from Reviewers, Advisory Board members, or Editorial Board members. The Editors will contact the Author regarding the request for clarification, but the final decision is whether the correction is necessary and, if so, the type available to the Editors. Corrections to published articles are bi-directionally linked to and from the article being corrected. They are represented by a formal notice on the PDF and HTML versions of the article concerned.

Article Withdrawal

Withdrawal of articles is strongly discouraged and only used in exceptional circumstances for early versions of articles accepted for publication but have not been formally published yet (“articles in press”) but may already appear online. Such versions may contain errors, may have accidentally been submitted twice, or may violate a journal’s publishing ethics guidelines (e.g., multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, etc.). In such situations, especially in case of legal/ethical violations or false/inaccurate data that could pose a detrimental risk if used, it may be decided to withdraw the article's early version from our electronic platform. Withdrawal means that the article content (both the HTML- and PDF-versions) is removed and replaced with an HTML page and PDF stating that the article has been withdrawn according to Sundermann Journal policies on article withdrawal link to the then-current policy text.

Note that if Authors retain the copyright for an article, this does not mean they automatically have the right to withdraw it after publication. The integrity of the published scientific record is of paramount importance, and these policies on retractions and withdrawals still apply in such cases.

Article Removal

It may be necessary to remove a published article from our online platform in a minimal number of cases. It will only happen if an article is defamatory, or infringes others’ legal rights, or where the article is, or we have good reason to expect that it will be, the subject of a court order, or where the article if acted upon, may pose a serious health risk. In such circumstances, while the article's metadata (i.e., title and author information) will be retained, the text will be replaced with a screen indicating that it has been removed for legal reasons.

Article Replacement

In cases where an article, if acted upon, may pose a serious health risk, the Authors of the original paper may wish to retract the flawed original and replace it with a corrected version. Under such circumstances, the above procedures for retraction will be followed with the difference that the article retraction notice will contain a link to the corrected re-published article and a history of the document.